Mobile democracy essays on society self and politics

It appears that Aeschylus "is trying to preserve the dignity of a severely battered institution. The classical example that inspired the American and French revolutionaries as well as the English radicals was Rome rather than Greece.

The citizen making the proposal had to publish it [in] advance: Under this, anything passed by the assembly or even proposed but not yet voted on, could be put on hold for review before a jury — which might annul it and perhaps punish the proposer as well. Cleisthenesthe founder of democracy, had a non-Athenian mother, and the mothers of Cimon and Themistocles were not Greek at all, but Thracian.

Combined with the institution of slavery, this allowed for massive economic inequality in the society which meant the polis would be dominated by wealthy aristocrats. However, the "enfranchisement of the local laboring classes was succeeded by the development of chattel slavery, the enslavement of, in large part, foreigners.

Most of the annual magistracies at Athens could only be held once in a lifetime. Whatever professionalism there was tended to disguise itself; it was possible to pay for the services of a speechwriter or logographer logographosbut this may not have been advertised in court.

Archon and Areopagus Just before the reforms of Solon in the 7th century BC, Athens was governed by a few archons three rising to nine and the council of the Areopagus " appointed by the powerful noble families from their own members ". While his opponents were away attempting to assist the Spartans, Ephialtes persuaded the Assembly to reduce the powers of the Areopagus: Elected officials too were subject to review before holding office and scrutiny after office.

The proposal would be considered by the Council, and would be placed on the agenda of the Assembly in the form of a motion. In the course of a century, the number of citizenships so granted was in the hundreds rather than thousands.

That influence was based on his relation with the assembly, a relation that in the first instance lay simply in the right of any citizen to stand and speak before the people.

For private suits the minimum jury size was increased to if a sum of over drachmas was at issuefor public suits The members of these institutions were generally aristocrats, who ruled the polis for their own advantage.

It is unknown whether the word "democracy" was in existence when systems that came to be called democratic were first instituted.

In the 5th century version of the democracy, the ten annually elected generals were often very prominent, but for those who had power, it lay primarily in their frequent speeches and in the respect accorded them in the assembly, rather than their vested powers.

This triggers the paradoxical question: Ancient Greek critics of the democracy include Thucydides the general and historian, Aristophanes the playwright, Plato the pupil of Socrates, Aristotle the pupil of Plato, and a writer known as the Old Oligarch.

It was superseded in importance by the Areopaguswhich, recruited from the elected archons, had an aristocratic character and was entrusted with wide powers. Though there might be blocs of opinion, sometimes enduring, on important matters, there were no political parties and likewise no government or opposition as in the Westminster system.

There were two main categories in this group: Athenion allied with Mithridates of Pontusand went to war with Rome; he was killed during the war, and was replaced by Aristion. They administered rather than governed. Additional meetings might still be called, especially as up until BC there were still political trials that were conducted in the assembly rather than in court.

They saw it as the rule of the poor that plundered the rich, and so democracy was viewed as a sort of "collective tyranny". A new law might be proposed by any citizen.

Pay was raised from 2 to 3 obols by Cleon early in the Peloponnesian war and there it stayed; the original amount is not known. Even with respect to slavery the new citizen law of BC might have had effect: Working for wages was clearly regarded as subjection to the will of another, but at least debt servitude had been abolished at Athens under the reforms of Solon at the start of the 6th century BC.

Athenian democracy

However, " Macaulay and John Stuart Mill and George Grote saw the great strength of the Athenian democracy in the high level of cultivation that citizens enjoyed and called for improvements in the educational system of Britain that would make possible a shared civic consciousness parallel to that achieved by the ancient Athenians.

The age limit of 30 or older, the same as that for office holders but ten years older than that required for participation in the assembly, gave the courts a certain standing in relation to the assembly.

For instance, the system of nomothesia was introduced.The central events of the Athenian democracy were the meetings of the assembly (ἐκκλησία, ekklesía).Unlike a parliament, the assembly's members were not elected, but attended by right when they mi-centre.com democracy created at Athens was direct, rather than representative: any adult male citizen over the age of 20 could take part, and it.

Democracy in America and Two Essays on America (Penguin Classics) [Alexis de Tocqueville, Isaac Kramnick, Gerald Bevan] on mi-centre.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.

A contemporary study of the early American nation and its evolving democracy, from a French aristocrat and sociologist In Alexis de Tocqueville.

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Mobile democracy essays on society self and politics
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